Direct & Indirect Speech

 

IWe use two ways to report the words(dialogue) of a speaker.​

  • When we report the exact words of the speaker without any change , this is called Direct Speech.

  • When we report the words of the speaker without quoting his exact words, this is called Indirect Speech. 

For better understanding watch video    

Direct & Indirect Speech

 

IWe use two ways to report the words(dialogue) of a speaker.​

  • When we report the exact words of the speaker without any change , this is called Direct Speech.

  • When we report the words of the speaker without quoting his exact words, this is called Indirect Speech. 

For better understanding watch video    

MORE ABOUT DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

MORE ABOUT DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

EXAMPLE OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

EXAMPLE OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Direct Speech

Direct Speech

We report the exact words of the speaker enclosed in quotation marks. This is called Direct Speech. When we use direct speech we should follow these rules:-

 

  • The words of the speaker should be placed within double inverted commas.

  • A comma should be placed after reporting verb.

  • The Punctuation mark(full stop/question mark/exclamation mark) should be placed inside the quotation marks.

For example :- 

  1. He said, " My mother cooks delicious food ."

  2. They said, "Today is very hot day."

  3. My teacher said, " Today I will teach you grammar."

 For better understanding watch  video

We report the exact words of the speaker enclosed in quotation marks. This is called Direct Speech. When we use direct speech we should follow these rules:-

 

  • The words of the speaker should be placed within double inverted commas.

  • A comma should be placed after reporting verb.

  • The Punctuation mark(full stop/question mark/exclamation mark) should be placed inside the quotation marks.

For example :- 

  1. He said, " My mother cooks delicious food ."

  2. They said, "Today is very hot day."

  3. My teacher said, " Today I will teach you grammar."

 For better understanding watch  video

Indirect Speech

Indirect Speech

We report  the swords of the speaker without quoting his exact words. This is called Indirect Speech. When we use indirect speech we should follow these rules:-

 

  • The comma should be replaced with that and quotation mark s have to be removed.

  • The tense of the verb has to be changed.

  • Pronouns and adjectives should be changed.

  • There should be change in the words that denote time and place.

For example :-

  1. He said that he liked playing chess.

  2. She said that she had completed her homework.

  3. My mother said that she was going to the market.

  4. They said that they were watching movie.

 

For better understanding watch  video

 

We report  the swords of the speaker without quoting his exact words. This is called Indirect Speech. When we use indirect speech we should follow these rules:-

 

  • The comma should be replaced with that and quotation mark s have to be removed.

  • The tense of the verb has to be changed.

  • Pronouns and adjectives should be changed.

  • There should be change in the words that denote time and place.

For example :-

  1. He said that he liked playing chess.

  2. She said that she had completed her homework.

  3. My mother said that she was going to the market.

  4. They said that they were watching movie.

 

For better understanding watch  video

 

Rules to convert Direct Speech to Indirect Speech

Rules to convert Direct Speech to Indirect Speech

Rule 1:- The tense of the verb changes​

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech

Rule 1:- The tense of the verb changes​

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech

Simple Present

He said, "I like reading books."

Present Continuous

She said, "I am watching tv."

Present Perfect

They said, "We have completed our work."

Simple Past

He said , "I played cricket."

Past Perfect

The teacher said, "I had taught this chapter."

Will/Shall

Teacher said, "I will teach this chapter tomorrow."

Will Have

He said, "I will have little time to complete this work."

Simple Past

He said that he liked reading books.

Past Continuous

She said that she was watching tv.

Past Perfect

They said that they had completed their work.

Past Perfect

He said that he had played cricket.

Past Perfect

The teacher said that he had taught that chapter.

Would/Should

Teacher said said that he would teach that chapter the next day.

Would Have

He said that he would have little time to complete that work.

Simple Present

He said, "I like reading books."

Present Continuous

She said, "I am watching tv."

Present Perfect

They said, "We have completed our work."

Simple Past

He said , "I played cricket."

Past Perfect

The teacher said, "I had taught this chapter."

Will/Shall

Teacher said, "I will teach this chapter tomorrow."

Will Have

He said, "I will have little time to complete this work."

Simple Past

He said that he liked reading books.

Past Continuous

She said that she was watching tv.

Past Perfect

They said that they had completed their work.

Past Perfect

He said that he had played cricket.

Past Perfect

The teacher said that he had taught that chapter.

Would/Should

Teacher said said that he would teach that chapter the next day.

Would Have

He said that he would have little time to complete that work.

Rule 2:- Changes in pronouns and adjectives

Rule 2:- Changes in pronouns and adjectives

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech

I

We

My

Our

Me

Us

He/She

They

His/Her

Their

Him/Her

Them

I

We

My

Our

Me

Us

He/She

They

His/Her

Their

Him/Her

Them

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He said , "I don't like this."

Indirect Speech:- He said that he didn't like that.

 

Direct Speech:- They Said , "We are not playing."

Indirect Speech:- They said that they were not playing.

 

Direct Speech:- My mother said , " My purse is on the table."

Indirect Speech:- My mother said that her purse was on the table.

Direct Speech:- My friend said to him , "I will help you."

Indirect Speech:- My friend told him that he would help him.

Direct Speech:- The children said , " These are our books."

Indirect Speech:- The children said that those were their books.

Direct Speech:- The students said , "The teacher will  teach us this lesson tomorrow ."

Indirect Speech:- The students said that the teacher would  teach them that lesson the next day. 

 

For better understanding watch  video

 

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He said , "I don't like this."

Indirect Speech:- He said that he didn't like that.

 

Direct Speech:- They Said , "We are not playing."

Indirect Speech:- They said that they were not playing.

 

Direct Speech:- My mother said , " My purse is on the table."

Indirect Speech:- My mother said that her purse was on the table.

Direct Speech:- My friend said to him , "I will help you."

Indirect Speech:- My friend told him that he would help him.

Direct Speech:- The children said , " These are our books."

Indirect Speech:- The children said that those were their books.

Direct Speech:- The students said , "The teacher will  teach us this lesson tomorrow ."

Indirect Speech:- The students said that the teacher would  teach them that lesson the next day. 

 

For better understanding watch  video

 

Rule  3:- Words denoting time and place change.

Rule  3:- Words denoting time and place change.

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech

this

here

this afternoon

tomorrow

yesterday

these

today

tonight

last year

ago

thus

last night

that

there

that afternoon

the following day/the next day

the day before/the previous day

those

that day

that night

the previous year/the year before

before

so

the night before

this

here

this afternoon

tomorrow

yesterday

these

today

tonight

last year

ago

thus

last night

that

there

that afternoon

the following day/the next day

the day before/the previous day

those

that day

that night

the previous year/the year before

before

so

the night before

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He said , "I don't like this."

Indirect Speech:- He said that he didn't like that.

 

Direct Speech:- They Said , "We are playing here."

Indirect Speech:- They said that they were  playing there.

 

Direct Speech:- My mother said , " My friend is coming today."

Indirect Speech:- My mother said that her friend was coming that day .

Direct Speech:- My friend said to him , "I will buy a house next year."

Indirect Speech:- My friend told him that He would buy a house the following year.

Direct Speech:- The children said , " We are happy to watch the play this evening."

Indirect Speech:- The children said that they were happy to watch the play that evening.

for better understanding watch  video

 

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He said , "I don't like this."

Indirect Speech:- He said that he didn't like that.

 

Direct Speech:- They Said , "We are playing here."

Indirect Speech:- They said that they were  playing there.

 

Direct Speech:- My mother said , " My friend is coming today."

Indirect Speech:- My mother said that her friend was coming that day .

Direct Speech:- My friend said to him , "I will buy a house next year."

Indirect Speech:- My friend told him that He would buy a house the following year.

Direct Speech:- The children said , " We are happy to watch the play this evening."

Indirect Speech:- The children said that they were happy to watch the play that evening.

for better understanding watch  video

 

Rule  4:- If the statement is relevant or it is universal truth the tense may not change.

Rule  4:- If the statement is relevant or it is universal truth the tense may not change.

We can choose whether to change or keep the tense in original form.

 

 

 

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He said , "The Sun rises in the east."

Indirect Speech:- He said that the Sun rises in the east.

 

Direct Speech:- They Said , "The Earth revolves around the Sun."

Indirect Speech:- They said that the Earth revolves/revolved around the Sun.

 

Direct Speech:- My mother said , "The Moon is the natural satelite of the Earth."

Indirect Speech:- My mother said that the Moon is/was the natural satellite of the Earth.

Direct Speech:- My friend said to him , "Her height is 5 feet 5 inch.."

Indirect Speech:- My friend told him that her height is/was 5 feet 5 inch.

Direct Speech:- He said , " I know Mr. Sharma very well."

Indirect Speech:- He said that he knows/knew Mr. Sharma very well.

Direct Speech:- The students said , "French is the easy language to learn ."

Indirect Speech:- The students said that French is/was the easy language to learn. 

 

For better understanding watch  video

 

We can choose whether to change or keep the tense in original form.

 

 

 

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He said , "The Sun rises in the east."

Indirect Speech:- He said that the Sun rises in the east.

 

Direct Speech:- They Said , "The Earth revolves around the Sun."

Indirect Speech:- They said that the Earth revolves/revolved around the Sun.

 

Direct Speech:- My mother said , "The Moon is the natural satelite of the Earth."

Indirect Speech:- My mother said that the Moon is/was the natural satellite of the Earth.

Direct Speech:- My friend said to him , "Her height is 5 feet 5 inch.."

Indirect Speech:- My friend told him that her height is/was 5 feet 5 inch.

Direct Speech:- He said , " I know Mr. Sharma very well."

Indirect Speech:- He said that he knows/knew Mr. Sharma very well.

Direct Speech:- The students said , "French is the easy language to learn ."

Indirect Speech:- The students said that French is/was the easy language to learn. 

 

For better understanding watch  video

 

Rule  5:- If the reporting verb is in the Present Tense the tense of the Direct Speech do not change.

Rule  5:- If the reporting verb is in the Present Tense the tense of the Direct Speech do not change.

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He says , "I am going to the school."

Indirect Speech:- He says that he is going to the school.

 

Direct Speech:- They says , "We are playing here."

Indirect Speech:- They says that they are playing here.

 

Direct Speech:- She says , "I have completed my work"

Indirect Speech:- She says that she has completed her work.

Direct Speech:- My mother says , "I am cooking food."

Indirect Speech:- My mother says that she is cooking food.

Direct Speech:- He says , " I am doing my homework"

Indirect Speech:- He says that he is doing his homework."

For better understanding watch  video

 

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He says , "I am going to the school."

Indirect Speech:- He says that he is going to the school.

 

Direct Speech:- They says , "We are playing here."

Indirect Speech:- They says that they are playing here.

 

Direct Speech:- She says , "I have completed my work"

Indirect Speech:- She says that she has completed her work.

Direct Speech:- My mother says , "I am cooking food."

Indirect Speech:- My mother says that she is cooking food.

Direct Speech:- He says , " I am doing my homework"

Indirect Speech:- He says that he is doing his homework."

For better understanding watch  video

 

Rule  6:- If there is a question 

Rule  6:- If there is a question 

  • When the question starts with is, are, do, did, has, will, can etc. we use the words if or whether to introduce the indirect speech.(Example - A)

  • When the question starts with the words like what, whom, where, whose, who, which, where, when, why, how etc. ,the same word is used as the joining words instead of that, if or whether.(Example - B)

  • When the question is not with the interrogative word the Reporting Verb is followed by whether or if.

 

 

For example :-

 

(Example - A)

Direct Speech:- He said to him , "Have you any money to spend?"

Indirect Speech:- He asked him Whether he had any to spend..

Direct Speech:- My mother said to me , "Do you know him?"

Indirect Speech:- My mother asked me whether I knew him.

Direct Speech:- She said to me , "Can you help me?"

Indirect Speech:- She asked me if I could help her.

Direct Speech:- He said to him , "Will you do this for me?"

Indirect Speech:- He asked him whether he would do that for him..

Direct Speech:-They said to us , "Are you playing with us?"

Indirect Speech:- They asked us If/whether we were playing with them.

 

 (Example - B)

Direct Speech:- He said to him , "Where are you going?"

Indirect Speech:- He asked him where he was going.

 

Direct Speech:- They said to us , "Why you are not playing with us?"

Indirect Speech:- They asked us why we were not playing with them.

 

Direct Speech:- She said to her servant , "Where have you been?"

Indirect Speech:- She enquired of her servant where he had been.

Direct Speech:- My teacher said to the students , "Whose book is this?"

Indirect Speech:- My teacher enquired of the students whose book was that.

Direct Speech:- He said to the man , " Who are you?"

Indirect Speech:- He enquired of the man who he was."

For better understanding watch  video

 

  • When the question starts with is, are, do, did, has, will, can etc. we use the words if or whether to introduce the indirect speech.(Example - A)

  • When the question starts with the words like what, whom, where, whose, who, which, where, when, why, how etc. ,the same word is used as the joining words instead of that, if or whether.(Example - B)

  • When the question is not with the interrogative word the Reporting Verb is followed by whether or if.

 

 

For example :-

 

(Example - A)

Direct Speech:- He said to him , "Have you any money to spend?"

Indirect Speech:- He asked him Whether he had any to spend..

Direct Speech:- My mother said to me , "Do you know him?"

Indirect Speech:- My mother asked me whether I knew him.

Direct Speech:- She said to me , "Can you help me?"

Indirect Speech:- She asked me if I could help her.

Direct Speech:- He said to him , "Will you do this for me?"

Indirect Speech:- He asked him whether he would do that for him..

Direct Speech:-They said to us , "Are you playing with us?"

Indirect Speech:- They asked us If/whether we were playing with them.

 

 (Example - B)

Direct Speech:- He said to him , "Where are you going?"

Indirect Speech:- He asked him where he was going.

 

Direct Speech:- They said to us , "Why you are not playing with us?"

Indirect Speech:- They asked us why we were not playing with them.

 

Direct Speech:- She said to her servant , "Where have you been?"

Indirect Speech:- She enquired of her servant where he had been.

Direct Speech:- My teacher said to the students , "Whose book is this?"

Indirect Speech:- My teacher enquired of the students whose book was that.

Direct Speech:- He said to the man , " Who are you?"

Indirect Speech:- He enquired of the man who he was."

For better understanding watch  video

 

Rule  7:- If there is a command/request/advise

Rule  7:- If there is a command/request/advise

  • When the speech shows command/request , then reporting verb should be changed into a verb  that denotes command/request , like order, advise, request, beg, threaten, beseech, command, ask and propose etc.

  • The verbs that indicate command/advise/request like : go,  do, work, eat, read changed into  to go, to do, to work, to eat, to read.

  • Joining word 'that' is generally not used. 'To' is used in place of 'that'.

  • If 'that' is used then instead of 'to' 'should' is used before imperative sentence.

 

 

For example :-

 

(Example - A)

Direct Speech:- I said to him , "Do exercise regularly to be fit and healthy. "

Indirect Speech:- I advised him to do exercise regularly to be fit and healthy.

Direct Speech:- My mother said to me , "Chew the food properly"

Indirect Speech:- My mother advised me to chew the food properly.

Direct Speech:- The teacher said to the students , "Work hard to get success."

Indirect Speech:-The teacher advised the students to work hard to get success.

                                                            or

Indirect Speech:- The teacher advised the students that they should work hard to get success.

Direct Speech:- The doctor said to the patient , "Take medicine on time"

Indirect Speech:- The doctor advised the patient to take medicine on time.

                                                            or

Indirect Speech:- The doctor advised the patient that he should take medicine on time.

 

 

 

For better understanding watch  video

 

  • When the speech shows command/request , then reporting verb should be changed into a verb  that denotes command/request , like order, advise, request, beg, threaten, beseech, command, ask and propose etc.

  • The verbs that indicate command/advise/request like : go,  do, work, eat, read changed into  to go, to do, to work, to eat, to read.

  • Joining word 'that' is generally not used. 'To' is used in place of 'that'.

  • If 'that' is used then instead of 'to' 'should' is used before imperative sentence.

 

 

For example :-

 

(Example - A)

Direct Speech:- I said to him , "Do exercise regularly to be fit and healthy. "

Indirect Speech:- I advised him to do exercise regularly to be fit and healthy.

Direct Speech:- My mother said to me , "Chew the food properly"

Indirect Speech:- My mother advised me to chew the food properly.

Direct Speech:- The teacher said to the students , "Work hard to get success."

Indirect Speech:-The teacher advised the students to work hard to get success.

                                                            or

Indirect Speech:- The teacher advised the students that they should work hard to get success.

Direct Speech:- The doctor said to the patient , "Take medicine on time"

Indirect Speech:- The doctor advised the patient to take medicine on time.

                                                            or

Indirect Speech:- The doctor advised the patient that he should take medicine on time.

 

 

 

For better understanding watch  video

 

Rule  8:- If there is Exclamation/Wish

Rule  8:- If there is Exclamation/Wish

  • Reporting Verb should be changed into some verbs like exclaim, cry, pray, wish, bless etc.

  • Interjections like : hurrah, bravo, alas, oh, hush etc. should be omitted.

 

 

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He said , "Hurrah! I stood first in the class."

Indirect Speech:- He exclaimed with delight that he stood first in the class..

Direct Speech:- The captain said to the team, " Bravo! Well done."

Indirect Speech:- The captain applauded the team saying that they had done well.

Direct Speech:- My uncle said to me " May God bless you!."

Indirect Speech:- My uncle wished/prayed that God might bless me.

For better understanding watch  video

  • Reporting Verb should be changed into some verbs like exclaim, cry, pray, wish, bless etc.

  • Interjections like : hurrah, bravo, alas, oh, hush etc. should be omitted.

 

 

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He said , "Hurrah! I stood first in the class."

Indirect Speech:- He exclaimed with delight that he stood first in the class..

Direct Speech:- The captain said to the team, " Bravo! Well done."

Indirect Speech:- The captain applauded the team saying that they had done well.

Direct Speech:- My uncle said to me " May God bless you!."

Indirect Speech:- My uncle wished/prayed that God might bless me.

For better understanding watch  video

Rule  9:- Rule to change 'Let'

For example :-

 

Direct Speech:- He said , "Let me do my work."

Indirect Speech:- He requested to let him do his work.

Direct Speech:- They said to us , " let us go to play"

Indirect Speech:- They suggested that they should play.

Direct Speech:- The teacher said to the class monitor, " Let no one make noise in the class."

Indirect Speech:- The teacher ordered/commanded the class monitor that no one should make noise in the class.

For better understanding watch  video

 

Convert the following sentences in Indirect Speech:

1)- He said, " I am reading a book."

2)- They said to us, " Let's play together."

3)- The teacher said to the students, "Complete your work and submit it tomorrow."

4)-The football team said, " Hurrah! We won the match."

5)- My mother says, "Honesty is the best policy."

6)- Our Science teacher says, "There are eight planets in our solar system."

7)- He said, "Guitar is not easy to learn."

8)- She said to me, "Please lend me your book."

9)- My father said , "Tim, finish your work."

10)-He said, "Yes sir, you are right."

11)-My father said to me, "will you come with me?"

12)-The students said to the teacher, "is there a holiday tomorrow?"